Armenian village, The Armenian people living in the Ottoman provinces of eastern Anatolia, like other non-Turkish and non-Muslim subjects of the Empire, had long suffered from systematic discrimination and, at times, harsh persecution. Indeed, it is widely claimed that the Armenians were victims of a deliberate genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman authorities — an accusation that continues to be strongly denied by Turkey. Guerrilla fighters defend the city of Van, After crushing this resistance, the Ottoman leadership accelerated plans to deport the entire Armenian population of eastern Anatolia to what they considered less strategically vulnerable areas of the empire. The deportations took more than a year to complete.
One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I d.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period. The Gaza Thesis theory popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islambut it is now highly criticised and no longer generally accepted by historians, and no consensus on the nature of the early Ottoman state's expansion has replaced it.
In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans. Osman's son, Orhancaptured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa inmaking it the new capital of the Ottoman state and supplanting Byzantine control in the region. The important port city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in and sacked.
The Ottoman victory at Kosovo in effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe.
The Ottomans had already wrested control of nearly all former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but the heavy defence of Constantinople's strategic position on the Bosphorus Strait made it difficult to conquer.
Inthe Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the Turco-Mongol leader Timurfounder of the Timurid Empireinvaded Ottoman Anatolia from the east. In the Battle of Ankara inTimur defeated the Ottoman forces and took Sultan Bayezid I as a prisoner, throwing the empire into disorder.
The ensuing civil waralso known as the Fetret Devri, lasted from to as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority.
The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans. It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.
He then laid siege to Vienna inbut failed to take the city. In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians ingaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf. Inthe Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans, a status quo that would remain until the end of the Russo-Turkish War — After further advances by the Turks, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in The success of its political and military establishment was compared to the Roman Empire, by the likes of Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino and the French political philosopher Jean Bodin.The Ottoman Empire Page 6 – The Armenians' suffering.
the Ottoman leadership accelerated plans to deport the entire Armenian population of eastern Anatolia to what they considered less strategically vulnerable areas of the empire.
Jendarma paramilitaries and Kurdish auxiliaries who carried the orders out therefore stand . Armenians Commemorate Ottoman Empire Massacres a joint commission of historians to determine whether the massacres carried out between and constituted genocide.
On Armenian. While Ottoman censuses claimed an Armenian population of million, Fa'iz El-Ghusein (the Kaimakam of Kharpout) wrote that there were about million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, and some modern scholars estimate over 2 million. Utah Series in Middle East Studies In , the Ottoman government, then run by the Young Turks, deported most of its Armenian citizens from their eastern Anatolian lands.
According to reliable estimates, close to forty percent of the prewar population perished, many in brutal massacres. Armenians call it the first genocide of the twentieth century/5(4). Rumelian refugees and Kurdish auxiliaries used to perpetrate Armenian massacres Armenian population distributed between Russian Empire, Persia and OE.
Shared regions with Kurds, Turks and smaller minorities of Jews and Greeks.
Aimed to transform the Ottoman Empire into an nation-state that could truly compete with the West on. Ottoman Empire and the Armenian Genocide. Resolutions and Declarations.
Official Reports. Turkish Military Tribunal () Most of these massacres were carried out with impunity and the majority of criminal offenders escaped prosecution.
and brutal implementation of policies designed to destroy the Armenian population of the Ottoman.