Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list.
References and Further Readings 1.
Historical Background Classically, scholars recognize three major phases of ancient Stoicism Sedley Of course, Stoicism itself originated as a modification from previous schools of thought Schofieldand its influence extended well beyond the formal closing of the ancient philosophical schools by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in C.
Verbeke ; Colish ; Osler Philosophical Antecedents Stoicism is a Hellenistic eudaimonic philosophy, which means that we can expect it to be influenced by its immediate predecessors and contemporaries, as well as to be in open critical dialogue with them. These includes Socratic thinking, as it has arrived to us mainly through the early Platonic dialogues; the Platonism of the Academic school, particularly in its Skeptical phase; Aristotelianism of the Peripatetic school; Cynicism ; Skepticism ; and Epicureanism.
It is worth noting, in order to put things into context, that a quantitative study of extant records concerning known philosophers of the ancient Greco-Roman world Goulet estimates that the leading schools of Explain the ethical teachings of christianity essay time were, in descending order: For the Greco-Romans this often involved—but was not necessarily entirely defined by—excellence at moral virtues.
Stoicism is best understood in the context of the differences among some of the similar schools of the time. Socrates had argued—in the Euthydemus, for instance McBrayer et al. Everything else is neither good nor bad in and of itself.
By contrast, for Aristotle the virtues of which he listed a whopping twelve were necessary but not sufficient for eudaimonia. One also needed a certain degree of positive goods, such as health, wealth, education, and even a bit of good looks.
Contrast this to the rather extreme even for the time take of the Cynics, who not only thought that virtue was the only good, like Socrates, but that the additional goods that Aristotle was worried about were actually distractions and needed to be positively avoided.
Cynics like Diogenes of Sinope were famous for their ascetic and shall we say rather eclectic life style, as is epitomized by a story about him told by Diogenes Laertius VI. By contrast, the Cynics were preaching a rather extremely minimalist life style, which is hard to practice for most human beings.
Stoicism was not just born, but flourished in Athens, even though most of its exponents originated from the Eastern Mediterranean: According to Medleythis pattern is simply a reflection of the dominant cultural dynamics of the time, affected as they were by the conquests of Alexander.
Zeno began his studies under the Cynic Crates, and Cynicism always had a strong influence on Stoicism, all the way to the later writings of Epictetus. But Zeno also counted among his teachers Polemo, the head of the Academy, and Stilpo, of the Megarian school founded by Euclid of Megaria, a pupil of Socrates.
That compromise consisted in the uniquely Stoic notion that external goods are of ethically neutral value, but are nonetheless the object of natural pursuit. Zeno established the tripartite study of Stoic philosophy see the three topoi[[hyperlink]] comprising ethics, physics and logic.
The Ethical Teachings of Jesus. IT is a notable characteristic of Christianity that the ethical teachings of its Founder are inseparably connected with his religious teachings. "Thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself" is not given by him as a separate and detached precept, but as one of two. hot controversial religious topics. Instead, we try to explain all viewpoints fairly, accurately, completely, and with balance.. As a result, you are certain to find material in this section and throughout the rest of this web site that agrees with your beliefs. This essay will prove that both Islam and Christianity have ethical teachings that instruct people to give to the needy. This will be proved by first defining what an ethical guideline or teaching is, by looking at the Islamic ethical guidelines that.
Perhaps the most important example is provided by the dispute between Cleanthes and Chrysippus about the unity of the virtues: Zeno had talked about each virtue in turn being a kind of wisdom, which Cleanthes interpreted in a strict unitary sense that is, all virtues are one: This went against pretty conclusive anatomical evidence that was already available in the Hellenistic period, and earned the Stoics the scorn of Galen for example, Tielemanthough later Stoics did update their beliefs on the matter.
Despite this faux pas, Chrysippus was arguably the most influential Stoic thinker, responsible for an overhaul of the school, which had declined under the guidance of Cleanthes, a broad systematization of its teachings, and the introduction of a number of novel notions in logic—the aspect of Stoicism that has had the most technical philosophical impact in the long run.
We have to wait until B.
It is interesting to note, as does Sedley that the fourth large school, the Epicurean one, was missing, following their stance of political non-involvement. The philosophers in question, including the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon, made a huge impression on the Roman public with their public performances and, apparently, an equally worrisome one on the Roman elite, thus beginning a long tradition of tension between philosophers and high-level politicians that characterized especially the post-Republican empirepaving the road for the later shift of philosophy from Athens to Rome, as well as other centers of learning, like Alexandria.
This process seems to have been in part responsible for the further success of Stoicism once the major philosophers of the various schools moved from Athens to Rome, after the diaspora of B. Roman Stoicism If the visit to Rome by the head of various philosophical schools in B.
At that time philosophers, particularly the Peripatetic Athenion and—surprisingly—the Epicurean Aristion, were politically in charge at Athens, and made the crucial mistake of siding with Mithridates against Rome Bugh The defeat of the King of Pontus, and consequently of Athens, spelled disaster for the latter and led to a diaspora of philosophers throughout the Mediterranean.
To be fair, we have no evidence of the continuation of the Stoa as an actual school in Athens after Panaetius who often absented himself to Rome anywayand we know that Posidonius taught in Rhodes, not Athens.
However, according to Sedleyit was the events of B. Sedley highlights two Stoic philosophers of the late First Century B.
However, as Gill points out, this should not lead us to think that the vitality of Stoicism had taken a nose dive by then: Still, it is certainly the case that the best known Stoics of the time were either teachers like Musonius Rufus and Epictetus, or politically active, like Seneca and Marcus Aurelius, thus shaping our understanding of the period as a contrast to the foundational and more theoretical one of Zeno and Chrysippus.
Importantly, it is from the late Republic and Empire that we also get some of the best indirect sources on Stoicism, particularly several books by Cicero ; for example. And this literature went on to influence later writers well after the decline of Stoicism, particularly Plotinus C.Importance of Religious Beliefs to Ethical Attitudes in Business Cover Page Footnote * Tisha Emerson is Associate Professor and Joseph McKinney is .
Systematic Theology (Louis Berkhof) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Below is an essay on "Explain the Ethical Teachings of the Religion You Have Studied" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Explain the ethical teachings of the Religion you have studied.(25 M).
SOR1 Christianity ethics essay Question: “Love one another as I have loved you.” With reference to the above statement and Christian ethical teachings explain why Jesus is the model for Christian life Mark received: 13/ Home > A Level and IB > Religious Studies > Explain the ethical teachings of the religion you have studied.
Explain the ethical teachings of the religion you have studied. Religious study As essay question. This essay will prove that both Islam and Christianity have ethical teachings that instruct people to give to the needy. This will be proved by first defining what an ethical guideline or teaching is, by looking at the Islamic ethical guidelines that.