Integration and coordination An organization is a continuing system, able to distinguish and integrate human activities. The organization utilizes, transforms and joins together a set of human, material and other resources for problem-solving Bakke,
One head and one plan for a group of activities with the same objective 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest The interests of one individual or one group should not prevail over the general good.
This is a difficult area of management 7. Remuneration Pay should be fair to both the employee and the firm 8. Centralisation Is always present to a greater or less extent, depending on the size of the company and quality of its managers 9.
Scalar chain The line of authority from top to bottom of the organisation Order A place for everything and everything in its place; the right man in the right place Equity A combination of kindliness and justice towards the employees Stability of tenure of personnel Employees need to be given time to settle into their jobs, even though this may be a lengthy period in the case of the managers Initiative Within the limits of authority and discipline, all levels of staff should be encouraged to show initiative Fayol also gave much of the basic terminology and concepts, which would be elaborated upon by future researchers, such as division of labour, scalar chain, unity of command and centralisation.
Disadvantages Fayol was describing the structure of formal organisations. Many of these principles have been absorbed into modern day organisations, but they were not designed to cope with conditions of rapid change.
This was a scientific system where every task became discrete and specialised.
Specialised services are provided in the NHS, and these management techniques could prove useful in these areas, to review productivity. For the workers, scientific management required them to: The benefits arising from scientific management can be summarised as follows: The drawbacks were mainly for the workers: Therefore, in summary, while the scientific management technique has been employed to increase productivity and efficiency both in private and public services, it has also had the disadvantages of discounting many of the human aspects of employment.
Max Weber -Germany Weber described bureaucracy as the most efficient way of working. Bureaucracy in this context is the organisational form of certain dominant characteristics such as a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules.
Bureaucracy in a sense of red tape or officialdom should not be used as these meanings are value-ridden and only emphasise very negative aspects of the original Max Weber model.
Authority is distinguished from power by Weber. Power is a unilateral thing - it enables a person to force another to behave in a certain way, whether by means of strength or by rewards. Authority, on the other hand, implies acceptance of the rules by those over whom it is to be exercised within limits agreeable to the subordinates that Weber refers to in discussing legitimate authority.
Weber presented three types of legitimate authority also discussed in Section 5a: The main features of bureaucracy according to Weber were:Classical organization theory was developed in the first half of the 20th century as a way of bringing together scientific management, bureaucratic theory and administrative theory.
Organizational theory then uses these patterns to formulate normative theories of how organizations function best. Therefore, organizational theory can be used in order to learn the best ways to run an organization or identify organizations that are managed in such a way that they are likely to be successful.
Organizational theories which explain the organization and its structure can be broadly classified as classical or modern. Classical organization theory Taylor's scientific management approach.
Over the years, there have been a number of process theories in the academic literature, but seldom has anyone reviewed them systematically or in an integrated way.
Process theories have appeared in organization theory, strategic management, operations management, group dynamics, and studies of managerial behavior.
Management Theories and Leadership Styles The comprehension of management theories and leadership styles are essential for students to learn about management ideas and applications.
Theory Z, Management by Objectives, Force-Field Analysis, Autocratic and Democratic Leaders are four theories that can be applied to any industry and can .
PART 1 THE ORGANISATIONAL SETTING 42 THE THEORY OF MANAGEMENT A central part of the study of organisation and management is the development of manage-ment thinking and what might be termed management theory.